Read This NextSmoking and Hair Loss: Are They Connected?Vegamour’The Blacklist’ Fans Are Not Happy They Didn’t Find Out What Was in ThatThe Wrap’The Blacklist’ Finale All But Confirms Long-Held Fan Theory About Red’sThe WrapIf You’re Losing Hair in This Specific Spot, It Might Be a Thyroid IssueVegamourWhat Causes Hair Loss? Every Trigger ExplainedVegamour15 Surprises About the Original ‘The Fast and the Furious,’ From CastThe WrapTop 5 Tips If You’re Losing Your EyebrowsVegamourHow Often Can You Dye Your Hair?VegamourThe 15 Best Friendship Moments in ‘The Bold Type’ (Photos)The Wrap whatsapp Friday 26 October 2018 11:31 am Joe Curtis whatsapp Share Salisbury’s 1215 copy of the legal document is the best-surviving of one of just four versions of the text, which placed limits on the powers of the monarch, asserted that nobody is above the law, as well as guaranteeing the right to a fair trial.Police called for eyewitnesses to contact them by dialling 101 and quoting crime reference number 541800101438. Alarms were activated at Salisbury Cathedral shortly before 5pm yesterday after someone tried to smash the glass box surrounding the historic document, Wiltshire Police said today.A 45-year-old man matching a witness description was taken into custody for alleged attempted theft, possession of a weapon and causing criminal damage.An eyewitness told the Salisbury Journal that they saw a hammer drop to the ground amid a scuffle inside the cathedral.“It looked like some men play-fighting but as they got through the gates I saw a hammer drop to the floor and one of the men kicked it into the road whilst another man held on to him,” the eyewitness said.The 1215 copy of the Magna Carter is undamaged, police said. by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeMisterStoryWoman Files For Divorce After Seeing This Photo – Can You See Why?MisterStoryBetterBe20 Stunning Female AthletesBetterBeMoneyPailShe Was A Star, Now She Works In ScottsdaleMoneyPailJustPerfact USAMan Decides to File for Divorce After Taking a Closer Look at This Photo! JustPerfact USAFinanceChatterViewers Had To Look Away When This Happened On Live TVFinanceChatterDaily FunnyFemale Athlete Fails You Can’t Look Away FromDaily FunnyOne-N-Done | 7-Minute Workout7 Minutes a Day To a Flat Stomach By Using This 1 Easy ExerciseOne-N-Done | 7-Minute Workoutzenherald.comDolly Finally Took Off Her Wig, Fans Gaspedzenherald.comBridesBlushWhat The Harry Potter Stars Look Like Out Of CostumeBridesBlush Man arrested after attempted theft of 1215 Magna Carta from Salisbury Cathedral A man is in custody today after police arrested him on suspicion of trying to steal the Magna Carta. Tags: Trading Archive
Express KCS whatsapp Share by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeMaternity WeekA Letter From The Devil Written By A Possessed Nun In 1676 Has Been TranslatedMaternity WeekMoneyPailShe Was A Star, Now She Works In ScottsdaleMoneyPailElite HeraldExperts Discover Girl Born From Two Different SpeciesElite Heraldzenherald.comMeghan Markle Changed This Major Detail On Archies Birth Certificatezenherald.comBeverly Hills MDPlastic Surgeon Explains: “Doing This Every Morning Can Snap Back Sagging Skin” (No Creams Needed)Beverly Hills MDNoteableyKirstie Alley Is So Skinny Now And Looks Like A BarbieNoteableyEquity MirrorThey Drained Niagara Falls — They Weren’t Prepared For This Sickening DiscoveryEquity MirrorUltimate Pet Nutrition Nutra Thrive SupplementIf Your Dog Eats Grass (Do This Every Day)Ultimate Pet Nutrition Nutra Thrive SupplementUltimate Pet NutritionIf Your Dog Eats Dry Food, Do This Every DayUltimate Pet Nutrition Read This NextYoga for Beginners: 3 Different Types of Yoga You Should TryFamily ProofHiking Gadgets: Amazon Deals Perfect For Your Next AdventureFamily ProofChicken Bao: Delicious Recipes Worth CookingFamily ProofWhat to Know About ‘Loki’ Ahead of Disney+ Premier on June 9Family ProofBack on the Rails for Summer New York to New Orleans, Savannah and MiamiFamily ProofBaked Sesame Salmon: Recipes Worth CookingFamily Proof’A Quiet Place Part II’ Sets Pandemic Record in Debut WeekendFamily ProofIndian Spiced Vegetable Nuggets: Recipes Worth CookingFamily ProofCreamy Pumpkin Soup: Delicious Recipes Worth CookingFamily Proof BRITAIN’S top share index edged slightly higher yesterday, with miners gaining ground following a recovery in prices of key industrial metals such as copper and aluminium.The blue chip FTSE 100 index, which climbed to its highest level since mid-September on Tuesday, closed 0.2 per cent higher at 6,825.94 points.The UK mining index rose 0.8 per cent to feature among the top sectoral gainers after copper prices rose 1.5 per cent and nickel advanced 1.7 per cent in the wake of recent declines. Miners Rio Tinto, BHP Billiton and Anglo American rose 0.4 per cent to 2.3 per cent.Among individual stocks, brewer SABMiller rose 4.6 per cent, the top gainer in the index, with traders saying the stock had become attractive on valuation grounds following its recent underperformance against its peers. But retailer Morrisons fell 6.2 per cent, the biggest decline in the FTSE 100 index, with traders citing a Bernstein note as the main reason for the stock’s weakness. FTSE creeps higher as miners dig deep after price recovery – London Report whatsapp Wednesday 28 January 2015 8:37 pm Tags: Company FTSE 100 Show Comments ▼
Key to its enduring appeal, according to the report, is shippers’ need for flexibility in handling their shipments.In contrast, the report argues, by its very nature automation comes with a relatively high level of rigidity, which can cause problems in the supply chain.“A common refrain from interviewees was that tech forwarders would not be a channel through which large shippers managed their global or regional shipping needs,” it says.“Large shippers with complex, diverse and multi-year requirements will continue to put their logistics needs out to tender and have forwarders bid for it with a negotiating team.”Furthermore, many believed that these platforms would also not be suitable for start-ups, which it said often required “hand-holding”.However, the report recognises there are opportunities for tech platforms to leverage their simplified systems.“Tech forwarders are best set up to serve SMEs which require ‘transactional’ country-to-country services, such as the booking of the core sea or air transportation,” it says.“Simplicity and responsiveness are often the most crucial factors in determining which forwarder an SME picks, and this is the main reason they would use a tech forwarder.”Yet it also questions the potential profitability of online platforms, noting that the levels of transparency they bring with them are squeezing margins.An “overwhelming” number of respondents indicated gross profit per teu had fallen, and would continue to drop, although there was no consensus on how much.“However, ‘costs to serve’ should fall as front-end online booking entail lower process costs compared to traditional forwarding,” it adds. “And this was one of the most common themes among those interviewed: that process automation was the way in which forwarders were reducing costs.”It concludes that the lack of transformative quality brought about by tech platforms will see only some of them find a sustainable business model.While acknowledging that these platforms had changed the strategies of the larger forwarders, it suggests they do not offer an existential threat.“There is no future where they displace large forwarders, which will continue to manage the needs of large shippers,” it says. “Nor is there a future where the innovations such forwarders and platforms have brought to the market and drawn out of the incumbent players disappears.” By Alexander Whiteman 05/09/2018 Online platforms may be improving freight forwarding’s front end, but those predicting the demise of the traditional operator may have overestimated the impact of technology.Transport Intelligence’s recently published Global Freight Forwarding 2018 report, which polled 20 major forwarders and several online platforms, believes the tech crowd are not the transformative power many feared.“Online forwarders have been key to innovation in service and experience, and in the wider movement to embrace new tech as it matures and start to create value,” says the report.“On the other hand, at a first principles level, the underlying operations of forwarding have remained relatively unchanged. Forwarding remains a process of buying space and securing volumes, of ensuring goods reach destination on time, in good condition, and of building trust and lasting relationships.”
PharmalotPharmalot, Pharmalittle: AstraZeneca suffers setback with its blood thinner [email protected] Vertex Pharmaceuticals suffered a setback as the UK’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence issued draft guidelines rejecting the use of its Orkambi cystic fibrosis treatment, Pharma Times reports. The cost watchdog determined the cost was “considerably higher” than the current standard of care, and so the treatment would not be an effective use of resources, despite an ability to reduce hospitalizations.The US Food and Drug Administration plans to add black box warnings — the most serious type — to all immediate-release opioid painkillers, STAT tells us. These include combination pills containing oxycodone and non-prescription drug ingredients. The move comes three years after the FDA added stronger warnings to long-acting opioid drugs like OxyContin, which slowly release their doses.advertisement Pharmalot Columnist, Senior Writer Ed covers the pharmaceutical industry. Top of the morning to you. And a fine one it is. The challenging mid-week slog may have arrived, but we are feeling optimistic thanks to a warm and shiny sun that is enveloping the Pharmalot campus. To celebrate, yes, we are brewing more cups of stimulation in our coffee kettle and working to the rhythm of the snoring mascots. As for you, here are some items of interest. We hope you find them helpful and, of course, that you have a smashing day …AstraZeneca reported that its Brilinta blood thinner failed to help stroke patients as hoped in a major clinical trial, Bloomberg News tells us. The drug was not significantly better than aspirin, which is the current standard of care, in preventing recurring heart attacks in the 90 days after patients suffered a stroke. The drug is a critical part of plans that call for reaching $45 billion in annual revenue by 2023.Despite a warning from Moody’s credit analysts, investors in bonds backed by risky loans are positive on deals involving Valeant Pharmaceuticals debt, The Financial Times writes. But not everyone is optimistic. “You’d need almost every market participant” in the (collateralized loan obligation) market to agree to a deal, Kevin Kendra, managing director and head of Fitch’s US Structured Credit group, tells Fortune.advertisement About the Author Reprints @Pharmalot Alex Hogan/STAT An Indian court agreed to a hearing next week concerning a government ban on 344 fixed-dose combination drugs, including a popular Pfizer cough medicine, The Hindustan Times reports. Meanwhile, India’s National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority moved in to back the health ministry in its efforts to curb these drugs by returning more than 200 applications to drug manufacturers, The Economic Times informs us.Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals reported a late-stage study of the Praluent injectable drug reduced the need for patients with an inherited form of high cholesterol to have bad cholesterol removed from their blood, Reuters says.Chinese authorities detained 37 people in Shandong province after a $90 million black market ring in vaccines was discovered last week, Reuters tells us. The vaccines — for meningitis, rabies and other illnesses — are suspected of being sold in dozens of provinces around China since 2011, and the government has promised a crackdown.Eli Lilly won US regulatory approval for an injectable drug called Taltz to treat adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, according to The Wall Street Journal.A trial is under way in a Miami court where an insurer for Eli Lilly alleges Tyco failed to protect computer data that allowed thieves to break into a warehouse and steal $60 million of drugs in 2010, Security Sales & Integration says.Germany’s Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care decided there is no evidence to cover an added benefit for Novartis’s Cosentyx to treat ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis, PMLive writes. Ed Silverman By Ed Silverman March 23, 2016 Reprints Tags AstraZenecacystic fibrosisValeant Pharmaceuticals
About the Author Reprints Pharmalot Pharmalot Columnist, Senior Writer Ed covers the pharmaceutical industry. GET STARTED Ed Silverman STAT+ is STAT’s premium subscription service for in-depth biotech, pharma, policy, and life science coverage and analysis. Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. Daily reporting and analysis The most comprehensive industry coverage from a powerhouse team of reporters Subscriber-only newsletters Daily newsletters to brief you on the most important industry news of the day STAT+ Conversations Weekly opportunities to engage with our reporters and leading industry experts in live video conversations Exclusive industry events Premium access to subscriber-only networking events around the country The best reporters in the industry The most trusted and well-connected newsroom in the health care industry And much more Exclusive interviews with industry leaders, profiles, and premium tools, like our CRISPR Trackr. Tags drug pricinglegalpharmaceuticalsSTAT+ By Ed Silverman Sept. 20, 2017 Reprints What’s included? [email protected] Unlock this article by subscribing to STAT+ and enjoy your first 30 days free! GET STARTED @Pharmalot Pfizer accuses J&J of illegally stifling insurance coverage for its biosimilar Mark Lennihan/AP Underscoring the lucrative potential for biosimilars, Pfizer (PFE) has accused Johnson & Johnson (JNJ) of using anti-competitive practices to prevent insurers from covering its version of a best-selling J&J medicine.In a lawsuit filed on Wednesday, Pfizer claims that J&J used various illegal contracting tactics to convince insurers not to cover Inflectra, a biosimilar version of the blockbuster Remicade treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and other diseases. A biosimilar, you may recall, is a nearly identical variant of a brand-name biologic medicine and is expected to provide the same result in patients. Log In | Learn More What is it?
Facebook LinkedIn Twitter IE Staff Sprott Physical Silver Trust, a trust created to invest and hold substantially all of its assets in physical silver bullion and managed by Sprott Asset Management LP, announced Wednesday that it has priced its follow-on offering of 23 million transferable, redeemable units at US$13.20 per unit. As part of the offering, the trust (NYSE: PSLV / TSX: PHS.U) has granted the underwriters an over-allotment option to purchase up to 3,450,000 additional units. The gross proceeds from the offering will be US$303.6 million, and US$349.14 million if the underwriters exercise in full the over-allotment option. The trust will use the net proceeds of the offering to acquire physical silver bullion in accordance with the trust’s objective and subject to the investment and operating restrictions described in the prospectus. The offering will be made by underwriters led by Morgan Stanley and RBC Capital Markets in the United States and RBC Capital Markets and Morgan Stanley in Canada. BMO launches silver deposit program Related news Keywords Precious metalsCompanies Sprott Asset Management Manager Monitor: Bullion’s bellwether LME, firms to launch LMEprecious Share this article and your comments with peers on social media
Share this article and your comments with peers on social media The Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures (CPMI) and the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) on Monday published a report that reviews the compliance of 28 jurisdictions with the CPMI-IOSCO principles for financial market infrastructure (FMIs). Overall, the assessment revealed that a majority of the jurisdictions had achieved “a high level of observance” of the principles. Of the 28 jurisdictions assessed, 16 fully observed the principles for all types of FMI; and two others either fully, or broadly, observed all the principles. The area where regulators most frequently fell short involves trade repositories (TRs). The report found that five of the participating jurisdictions are still developing trade repository regimes, and several others lacked clear criteria and/or fully disclosed policies to support their regulation, supervision and oversight of these organizations. The report also found shortcomings involving regulators’ arrangements for co-operating with other authorities. “This was due partly to the fact that many co-operative arrangements are new, but may in some cases also reflect different interpretations among authorities of the expectations in this area,” the CPMI-IOSCO report says. The CPMI and IOSCO say they will review the principles in the light of the findings and consider the need for additional guidance. Additionally, as jurisdictions gain greater experience with co-operative arrangements, particularly cross-border arrangements for central counterparties (CCPs) and TRs, the CPMI and IOSCO expect to consider new developments as part of a follow-up exercise to this report. For Canada, the report found that the authorities are adhering to the principles for most types of infrastructure, but they are not fully compliant with all principles for all firms. “The Canadian authorities apply clear criteria to identify FMIs that should be subject to regulation, supervision and oversight,” the CPMI-IOSCO report notes. “However, since FMIs in Canada are usually subject to regulation, supervision and oversight by more than one authority with differing approaches to their regulatory responsibilities, the varying clarity of these approaches reduces the overall transparency of the applicable regime.” “The number of domestic authorities involved in the supervision heightens the need for co-operation and clarity in the arrangements,” the CPMI-IOSCO report says. Moreover, the report found that some additional measures are required to complete implementation for certain firms. At the time of the assessment, no timeframe had been set for adopting the remaining principles, the report notes There is work underway to improve coordination, the CPMI-IOSCO report notes. “While securities regulators already coordinate their oversight of regulated entities on a day-to-day basis, they are also developing an MOU to formalize and increase the efficiency of these co-operative arrangements,” the CPMI-IOSCO report says. “Moreover, the Bank of Canada and the Department of Finance are planning to update the agreement governing their shared responsibility for the oversight of payment systems by end-2016 … This will address the minor gaps identified by the review team for payment systems.” In the year ahead, the CPMI and IOSCO also plan to finish the first detailed thematic assessment of outcomes achieved by the implementation of these principles. They aim to publish a report on the findings of this exercise by mid-2016. Related news James Langton FCA seeks consumer duty standards OSC adds three to IAP U.S. securities watchdogs reviewing recent stock market turbulence Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Canadian authorities are adhering to the principles for most types of infrastructure, but they are not fully compliant with all principles for all firms Canadian authorities are not yet fully compliant with global principles for overseeing financial market infrastructure firms, such as clearing and settlement firms, a new report finds. Keywords Securities regulationsCompanies International Organization of Securities Commissions
CMA consults on Annual Plan 2021/22 The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has outlined the key areas on which it expects to focus in the coming year, including its ongoing commitment to protect UK consumers during the unprecedented circumstances of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.The draft Annual Plan also looks ahead to the end of the EU Exit Transition Period and the new responsibilities this will bring for the CMA, including an increase in merger cases and competition law enforcement, as well as the creation of new functions such as the Digital Markets Unit and the Office for the Internal Market.The CMA proposes to focus on the following themes in 2021/22:protecting consumers and driving recovery during and after the coronavirus pandemic, with a particular focus on protecting the vulnerable from breaches of competition and consumer protection laws and poorly functioning markets, and supporting the UK economy by fostering competition to promote innovation, productivity and growthtaking its place as a global competition and consumer protection authority as it assumes new responsibilities after the EU Exit Transition Periodfostering effective competition in digital marketssupporting the transition to a low carbon economy.In carrying out this work, the CMA will continue to get closer to the needs of consumers, as it set out at the beginning of 2020. This includes continuing to develop its understanding of the changing needs of consumers; to explain why competition matters and the CMA’s work and priorities; and to advocate more visibly and vocally for the interests of consumers.The CMA’s consultation is intended to give partners, interested parties and members of the public the opportunity to provide views and comments on the CMA’s proposed Annual Plan for 2021/22, and it looks forward to receiving feedback and suggestions.F /Public Release. This material comes from the originating organization and may be of a point-in-time nature, edited for clarity, style and length. View in full here. Why?Well, unlike many news organisations, we have no sponsors, no corporate or ideological interests. We don’t put up a paywall – we believe in free access to information of public interest. Media ownership in Australia is one of the most concentrated in the world (Learn more). Since the trend of consolidation is and has historically been upward, fewer and fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media in our country. According to independent assessment, about 98% of the media sector is held by three conglomerates. This tendency is not only totally unacceptable, but also to a degree frightening). Learn more hereWe endeavour to provide the community with real-time access to true unfiltered news firsthand from primary sources. It is a bumpy road with all sorties of difficulties. We can only achieve this goal together. Our website is open to any citizen journalists and organizations who want to contribute, publish high-quality insights or send media releases to improve public access to impartial information. You and we have the right to know, learn, read, hear what and how we deem appropriate.Your support is greatly appreciated. All donations are kept completely private and confidential.Thank you in advance!Tags:coronavirus, digital, Economy, EU, Europe, Government, innovation, law, market, pandemic, UK, UK Government
Created with Raphaël 2.1.2Created with Raphaël 2.1.2 The Android Automotive interface on the centre screen. Andrew McCredie Ford will tap into software, artificial intelligence, and cloud computing offered by Alphabet Inc.’s Google to develop new consumer services and modernize internal operations, the companies said on Monday.As part of the six-year partnership, the Dearborn, Michigan-based automaker will incorporate the tech giant’s Android operating system into its Ford and Lincoln vehicles, starting in 2023.Ford will offer its customers built-in Google apps, including its map and voice technology. It will deploy Google artificial intelligence technology to improve the efficiency of vehicle development, supply chain and manufacturing operations, the companies said. COMMENTSSHARE YOUR THOUGHTS venture-cruise”>New Vehicles Microsoft and GM invest US-billion in self-driving venture Cruiseby Bloomberg | January 19, 2021 RELATED TAGSFordFlexIndustry newsNew VehiclesFlex Last year, Amazon.com Inc. joined hands with Japan’s Toyota to help manage and monetize data gathered from the automaker’s global vehicle fleet; while Volkswagen in 2019 struck a deal with Microsoft to cooperate on cloud computing in China and the United States. advertisement The Rolls-Royce Boat Tail may be the most expensive new car ever Trending in Canada We encourage all readers to share their views on our articles using Facebook commenting Visit our FAQ page for more information. Trending Videos The companies will also form a group, Team Upshift, to explore uses of data to develop new retail, create new ownership offers and other services for Ford customers.Ford customer data will not be handed over to Google or Google advertisers, Ford vice-president for strategy, David McClelland, said during a conference call.The automaker will continue to use other cloud service providers and collaborate with other tech companies such as Amazon.com, he said.“Will Ford be like Foxconn? No. Absolutely not,” McClelland said, alluding to a fear among some auto sector executives that auto manufacturers would be relegated to low-margin hardware assembly, like iPhone assembler Foxconn, in any deal with a technology industry power.McClelland and Google Cloud chief Thomas Kurian did not disclose details of the commercial terms of the agreement.The Google-Ford partnership reflects growing pressure on automakers to speed up software and data-enabled services that can generate revenue or cut costs.Ford, like its established rivals, has watched electric vehicle maker Tesla become the world’s most valuable automaker by far, in part because investors view Tesla as far ahead when it comes to the software and data management required for connected and electric cars. See More Videos PlayThe Rolls-Royce Boat Tail may be the most expensive new car everPlay3 common new car problems (and how to prevent them) | Maintenance Advice | Driving.caPlayFinal 5 Minivan Contenders | Driving.caPlay2021 Volvo XC90 Recharge | Ministry of Interior Affairs | Driving.caPlayThe 2022 Ford F-150 Lightning is a new take on Canada’s fave truck | Driving.caPlayBuying a used Toyota Tundra? Check these 5 things first | Used Truck Advice | Driving.caPlayCanada’s most efficient trucks in 2021 | Driving.caPlay3 ways to make night driving safer and more comfortable | Advice | Driving.caPlayDriving into the Future: Sustainability and Innovation in tomorrow’s cars | Driving.ca virtual panelPlayThese spy shots get us an early glimpse of some future models | Driving.ca RELATED First Look: 2022 Lexus NX The sport-cute’s looks have been softened, but its powertrains and infotainment offerings have been sharpened ‹ Previous Next ›
Share Share via TwitterShare via FacebookShare via LinkedInShare via E-mail Researchers and students adhere to safety protocols to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the Ramaly building on the CU Boulder campus. (Credit: Glenn Asakawa/CU Boulder) Wearing a mask is something we’ve had to adjust to and it makes communication more difficult. But it is a change that we have to live with for the time being to avoid the much larger problems of getting COVID-19, and of potentially passing it on to others who may die from it or suffer long-term health consequences. Categories:Health & SocietyNews Headlines Published: Feb. 10, 2021 • By Kelsey Simpkins Banner image: Students, staff and faculty, on the first day of the 2020 Fall semester on the CU Boulder Campus. (Credit: Glenn Asakawa/CU Boulder) Should we all be double masking?I don’t think double masking should be our default. I would advocate for a high-quality mask with attention to fit, and to make sure that you don’t have gaps and don’t develop gaps. Men should shave any beard on the areas where the masks sits, as it is impossible to get a good seal there—a lot of the air goes through the hair and is not filtered.What is the best way to double mask, and when does it make sense to do so? For double masking, we have to think in terms of filtration and fit. In some cases, it makes sense to double mask, for example: In hospitals they wear a surgical mask on top of an N95, which can keep the N95 clean if someone was to cough on it. Another potentially useful method is to wear a larger cloth mask on top of a surgical mask, so that the cloth mask helps close the gaps of the surgical mask. Can double masking be done improperly? Double masking can create problems. For example, depending how the second mask sits on top of the first one, it may increase the gaps of the first mask, leading to less filtration. In addition, because the air a person is breathing in and out encounters more resistance by having to go through two masks, a larger fraction of the air may go through any gaps present, defeating the purpose of the masks. Is there any harm in wearing a mask or two masks? To my knowledge there is no harm in wearing a mask. Sometimes people say that the mask retains carbon dioxide and that can cause oxygen depletion. But the amount of air between your mask and your face is very small compared to how much air we breathe, so your body compensates by breathing slightly faster, and the oxygen saturation does not change. Anyone can do this experiment with a pulse oximeter and a couple of scientific articles have demonstrated it. As several new variants of the novel coronavirus are now circulating the U.S., many people are wondering: Should we be wearing two face coverings instead of one? The idea of double masking was recently touted on the TODAY show by Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and on Feb. 10, the CDC updated its guidance to address wearing two masks based on the findings of a new study. CU Boulder Today spoke with our own Jose-Luis Jimenez, chemistry professor and CIRES Fellow, about this new trend and why masks continue to be such an important tool in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. (Learn more about why wearing a mask is important, even outside, and where you can pick up your free CU Boulder reusable face covering on campus.) How do masks protect us from the virus that causes COVID-19? Masks work when the air that we inhale and exhale goes through the mask material. Then a lot of the aerosols that may contain the virus stick to the material, which protects the wearer from breathing them and others from the aerosols exhaled by the wearer.What are the two most important elements of wearing a mask, single or double? What matters for masks are two things: One, the quality of the material—how many of the aerosols that go through the material stick to it. Single layer cloth masks have low filtration, while three-layer cloth masks or two layers with a filter in between, or surgical and N95 masks have good filtration.Second, the fit of the mask to the face. If there are gaps between the mask and the face, most often on the sides of the nose or the sides of the face, then a lot of the air we inhale or exhale will move through these gaps—instead of through the filter material. If the gaps are 2% of the surface area of the mask, 50% of the air we breathe will go through there without any filtering. What are the pros and cons of different types of masks? Cloth masks vary widely, but larger cloth masks can actually fit better than N95 in many situations. N95 masks are not easy to fit, and hospitals routinely do fit testing to teach people how to do it well. Surgical masks tend to have gaps on the sides, although this can be improved enormously with cheap devices such as FixTheMask. Jose-Luis Jimenez, chemistry professor and Fellow at the Cooperative Institute for Research In Environmental Sciences (CIRES).